(a) Protocol of the Proceedings, August l, 1945
The Berlin Conference of the Three Heads of Government of
the U. S. S. R., U. S. A., and U. K., which took place from July 17 to August 2, 1945,
came to the following conclusions:
I. ESTABLISHMENT OF A COUNCIL OF FOREIGN MINISTERS.
A. The Conference reached the following agreement for the
establishment of a Council of Foreign Ministers to do the necessary preparatory work for
the peace settlements:
" (1) There shall be established a Council composed
of the Foreign Ministers of the United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics,
China, France, and the United States.
"(2) (i) The Council shall normally meet in London
which shall be the permanent seat of the joint Secretariat which the Council will form.
Each of the Foreign Ministers will be accompanied by a high-ranking Deputy, duly
authorized to carry on the work of the Council in the absence of his Foreign Ministers,
and by a small staff of technical advisers.
" (ii) The first meeting of the Council shall be held
in London not later than September 1st 1945. Meetings may be held by common agreement in
other capitals as may be agreed from time to time.
" (3) (i) As its immediate important task, the
Council shall be authorized to draw up, with a view to their submission to the United
Nations, treaties of peace with Italy, Rumania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Finland, and to
propose settlements of territorial questions outstanding on the termination of the war in
Europe. The Council shall be utilized for the preparation of a peace settlement for
Germany to be accepted by the Government of Germany when a government adequate for the
purpose is established.
"(ii) For the discharge of each of these tasks the
Council will be composed of the Members representing those States which were signatory to
the terms of surrender imposed upon the enemy State concerned. For the purposes of the
peace settlement for Italy, France shall be regarded as a signatory to the terms of
surrender for Italy. Other Members will be invited to participate when matters directly
concerning them are under discussion.
" (iii) Other matters may from time to time be
referred to the Council by agreement between the Member Governments.
"(4) (i) Whenever the Council is considering a
question of direct interest to a State not represented thereon, such State should be
invited to send representatives to participate in the discussion and study of that
"(ii) The Council may adapt its procedure to the
particular problems under consideration. In some cases it may hold its own preliminary
discussions prior to the participation of other interested States. In other cases, the
Council may convoke a formal conference of the State chiefly interested in seeking a
solution of the particular problem."
B. It was agreed that the three Governments should each
address an identical invitation to the Governments of China and France to adopt this text
and to join in establishing the Council. The text of the approved invitation was as
Council of Foreign Ministers Draft for identical
invitation to be sent separately by each of the Three Governments to the Governments of
China and France.
"The Governments of the United Kingdom, the United
States and the U. S. S. R. consider it necessary to begin without delay the essential
preparatory work upon the peace settlements in Europe. To this end they are agreed that
there should be established a Council of the Foreign Ministers of the Five Great Powers to
prepare treaties of peace with the European enemy States, for submission to the United
Nations. The Council would also be empowered to propose settlements of outstanding
territorial questions in Europe and to consider such other matters as member Governments
might agree to refer to it.
"The text adopted by the Three Governments is as
(Here insert final agreed text of the Proposal)
"In agreement with the Governments of the United
States and U. S. S. R., His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom and U. S. S. R.,
the United States Government, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Government extend a
cordial invitation to the Government of China (France) to adopt the text quoted above and
to join in setting up the Council. His Majesty's Government, The United States Government,
The Soviet Government attach much importance to the participation of the Chinese
Government (French Government) in the proposed arrangements and they hope to receive an
early and favorable reply to this invitation."
C. It was understood that the establishment of the Council
of Foreign Ministers for the specific purposes named in the text would be without
prejudice to the agreement of the Crimea Conference that there should be periodical
consultation between the Foreign Secretaries of the United States, the Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics and the United Kingdom.
D. The Conference also considered the position of the
European Advisory Commission in the light of the Agreement to establish the Council of
Foreign Ministers. It was noted with satisfaction that the Commission had ably discharged
its principal tasks by the recommendations that it had furnished for the terms of
surrender for Germany, for the zones of occupation in Germany and Austria and for the
inter-Allied control machinery in those countries. It was felt that further work of a
detailed character for the coordination of Allied policy for the control of Germany and
Austria would in future fall within the competence of the Control Council at Berlin and
the Allied Commission at Vienna. Accordingly it was agreed to recommend that the European
Advisory Commission be dissolved.
II. THE PRINCIPLES TO GOVERN THE TREATMENT
OF GERMANY IN THE INITIAL CONTROL PERIOD
A. POLITICAL PRINCIPLES.
1. In accordance with the Agreement on Control Machinery
in Germany, supreme authority in Germany is exercised, on instructions from their
respective Governments, by the Commanders-in-Chief of the armed forces of the United
States of America, the United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the
French Republic, each in his own zone of occupation, and also jointly, in matters
affecting Germany as a whole, in their capacity as members of the Control Council.
2. So far as is practicable, there shall be uniformity of
treatment of the German population throughout Germany.
3. The purposes of the occupation of Germany by which the
Control Council shall be guided are:
(i) The complete disarmament and demilitarization of
Germany and the elimination or control of all German industry that could be used for
military production. To these ends:-
(a) All German land, naval and air forces, the SS., SA.,
SD., and Gestapo, with all their organizations, staffs and institutions, including the
General Staff, the Officers' Corps, Reserve Corps, military schools, war veterans'
organizations and all other military and semi-military organizations, together with all
clubs and associations which serve to keep alive the military tradition in Germany, shall
be completely and finally abolished in such manner as permanently to prevent the revival
or reorganization of German militarism and Nazism;
(b) All arms, ammunition and implements of war and all
specialized facilities for their production shall be held at the disposal of the Allies or
destroyed. The maintenance and production of all aircraft and all arms. ammunition and
implements of war shall be prevented.
(ii) To convince the German people that they have suffered
a total military defeat and that they cannot escape responsibility for what they have
brought upon themselves, since their own ruthless warfare and the fanatical Nazi
resistance have destroyed German economy and made chaos and suffering inevitable.
(iii) To destroy the National Socialist Party and its
affiliated and supervised organizations, to dissolve all Nazi institutions, to ensure that
they are not revived in any form, and to prevent all Nazi and militarist activity or
(iv) To prepare for the eventual reconstruction of German
political life on a democratic basis and for eventual peaceful cooperation in
international life by Germany.
4. All Nazi laws which provided the basis of the Hitler
regime or established discriminations on grounds of race, creed, or political opinion
shall be abolished. No such discriminations, whether legal, administrative or otherwise,
shall be tolerated.
5. War criminals and those who have participated in
planning or carrying out Nazi enterprises involving or resulting in atrocities or war
crimes shall be arrested and brought to judgment. Nazi leaders, influential Nazi
supporters and high officials of Nazi organizations and institutions and any other persons
dangerous to the occupation or its objectives shall be arrested and interned.
6. All members of the Nazi Party who have been more than
nominal participants in its activities and all other persons hostile to Allied purposes
shall be removed from public and semi-public office, and from positions of responsibility
in important private undertakings. Such persons shall be replaced by persons who, by their
political and moral qualities, are deemed capable of assisting in developing genuine
democratic institutions in Germany.
7. German education shall be so controlled as completely
to eliminate Nazi and militarist doctrines and to make possible the successful development
of democratic ideas.
8. The judicial system will be reorganized in accordance
with the principles of democracy, of justice under law, and of equal rights for all
citizens without distinction of race, nationality or religion.
9. The administration in Germany should be directed
towards the decentralization of the political structure and the development of local
responsibility. To this end:-
(i) local self-government shall be restored throughout
Germany on democratic principles and in particular through elective councils as rapidly as
is consistent with military security and the purposes of military occupation;
(ii) all democratic political parties with rights of
assembly and of public discussion shall be allowed and encouraged throughout Germany;
(iii) representative and elective principles shall be
introduced into regional, provincial and state (Land) administration as rapidly as may be
justified by the successful application of these principles in local self-government;
(iv) for the time being, no central German Government
shall be established. Notwithstanding this, however, certain essential central German
administrative departments, headed by State Secretaries, shall be established,
particularly in the fields of finance, transport, communications, foreign trade and
industry. Such departments will act under the direction of the Control Council.
10. Subject to the necessity for maintaining military
security, freedom of speech, press and religion shall be permitted, and religious
institutions shall be respected. Subject likewise to the maintenance of military security,
the formation of free trade unions shall be permitted.
B. ECONOMIC PRINCIPLES
11. In order to eliminate Germany's war potential, the
production of arms, ammunition and implements of war as well as all types of aircraft and
sea-going ships shall be prohibited and prevented. Production of metals, chemicals,
machinery and other items that are directly necessary to a war economy shall be rigidly
controlled and restricted to Germany's approved post-war peacetime needs to meet the
objectives stated in Paragraph 15. Productive capacity not needed for permitted production
shall be removed in accordance with the reparations plan recommended by the Allied
Commission on Reparations and approved by the Governments concerned or if not removed
shall be destroyed.
12. At the earliest practicable date, the German economy
shall be decentralized for the purpose of eliminating the present excessive concentration
of economic power as exemplified in particular by cartels, syndicates, trusts and other
13. In organizing the German Economy, primary emphasis
shall be given to the development of agriculture and peaceful domestic industries.
14. During the period of occupation Germany shall be
treated as a single economic unit. To this end common policies shall be established in
(a) mining and industrial production and its allocation;
(b) agriculture, forestry and fishing;
(c) wages, prices and rationing;
(d) import and export programs for Germany as a whole;
(e) currency and banking, central taxation and customs;
(f) reparation and removal of industrial war potential;
(g) transportation and communications.
In applying these policies account shall be taken, where
appropriate, of varying local conditions.
15. Allied controls shall be imposed upon the German
economy but only to the extent necessary:
(a) to carry out programs of industrial disarmament,
demilitarization, of reparations, and of approved exports and imports.
(b) to assure the production and maintenance of goods and
services required to meet the needs of the occupying forces and displaced persons in
Germany and essential to maintain in Germany average living standards not exceeding the
average of the standards of living of European countries. (European countries means all
European countries excluding the United Kingdom and the U. S. S. R.).
(c) to ensure in the manner determined by the Control
Council the equitable distribution of essential commodities between the several zones so
as to produce a balanced economy throughout Germany and reduce the need for imports.
(d) to control German industry and all economic and
financial international transactions including exports and imports, with the aim of
preventing Germany from developing a war potential and of achieving the other objectives
(e) to control all German public or private scientific
bodies research and experimental institutions, laboratories, et cetera connected
with economic activities.
16. In the imposition and maintenance of economic controls
established by the Control Council, German administrative machinery shall be created and
the German authorities shall be required to the fullest extent practicable to proclaim and
assume administration of such controls. Thus it should be brought home to the German
people that the responsibility for the administration of such controls and any break-down
in these controls will rest with themselves. Any German controls which may run counter to
the objectives of occupation will be prohibited.
17. Measures shall be promptly taken:
(a) to effect essential repair of transport;
(b) to enlarge coal production;
(c) to maximize agricultural output; and
(d) to erect emergency repair of housing and essential
18. Appropriate steps shall be taken by the Control
Council to exercise control and the power of disposition over German-owned external assets
not already under the control of United Nations which have taken part in the war against
19. Payment of Reparations should leave enough resources
to enable the German people to subsist without external assistance. In working out the
economic balance of Germany the necessary means must be provided to pay for imports
approved by the Control Council in Germany. The proceeds of exports from current
production and stocks shall be available in the first place for payment for such imports.
The above clause will not apply to the equipment and
products referred to in paragraphs 4 (a) and 4 (b) of the Reparations Agreement.
III. REPARATIONS FROM GERMANY
1. Reparation claims of the U. S. S. R. shall be met
by removals from the zone of Germany occupied by the U. S. S. R., and from appropriate
German external assets.
2. The U. S. S. R. undertakes to settle the reparation
claims of Poland from its own share of reparations.
3. The reparation claims of the United States, the United
Kingdom and other countries entitled to reparations shall be met from the Western Zones
and from appropriate German external assets.
4. In addition to the reparations to be taken by the U. S.
S. R. from its own zone of occupation, the U. S. S. R. shall receive additionally from the
(a) 15 per cent of such usable and complete industrial
capital equipment, in the first place from the metallurgical, chemical and machine
manufacturing industries as is unnecessary for the German peace economy and should be
removed from the Western Zones of Germany, in exchange for an equivalent value of food,
coal, potash, zinc, timber, clay products, petroleum products, and such other commodities
as may be agreed upon.
(b) 10 per cent of such industrial capital equipment as is
unnecessary for the German peace economy and should be removed from the Western Zones, to
be transferred to the Soviet Government on reparations account without payment or exchange
of any kind in return.
Removals of equipment as provided in (a) and (b) above
shall be made simultaneously.
5. The amount of equipment to be removed from the Western
Zones on account of reparations must be determined within six months from now at the
6. Removals of industrial capital equipment shall begin as
soon as possible and shall be completed within two years from the determination specified
in paragraph 5. The delivery of products covered by 4 (a) above shall begin as soon as
possible and shall be made by the U. S. S. R. in agreed installments within five years of
the date hereof. The determination of the amount and character of the industrial capital
equipment unnecessary for the German peace economy and therefore available for reparation
shall be made by the Control Council under policies fixed by the Allied Commission on
Reparations, with the participation of France, subject to the final approval of the Zone
Commander in the Zone from which the equipment is to be removed.
7. Prior to the fixing of the total amount of equipment
subject to removal, advance deliveries shall be made in respect to such equipment as will
be determined to he eligible for delivery in accordance with the procedure set forth in
the last sentence of paragraph 6.
8. The Soviet Government renounces all claims in respect
of reparations to shares of German enterprises which are located in the Western Zones of
Germany as well as to German foreign assets in all countries except those specified in
paragraph 9 below.
9. The Governments of the U. K. and U. S. A. renounce all
claims in respect of reparations to shares of German enterprises which are located in the
Eastern Zone of occupation in Germany, as well as to German foreign assets in Bulgaria,
Finland, Hungary, Rumania and Eastern Austria.
10. The Soviet Government makes no claims to gold captured
by the Allied troops in Germany.
IV. DISPOSAL OF THE GERMAN NAVY AND
A. The following principles for the distribution of
the German Navy were agreed:
(1) The total strength of the German surface navy,
excluding ships sunk and those taken over from Allied Nations, but including ships under
construction or repair, shall be divided equally among the U. S. S. R., U. K., and U. S.
(2) Ships under construction or repair mean those ships
whose construction or repair may be completed within three to six months, according to the
type of ship. Whether such ships under construction or repair shall be completed or
repaired shall be determined by the technical commission appointed by the Three Powers and
referred to below, subject to the principle that their completion or repair must be
achieved within the time limits above provided, without any increase of skilled employment
in the German shipyards and without permitting the reopening of any German ship building
or connected industries. Completion date means the date when a ship is able to go out on
its first trip, or, under peacetime standards, would refer to the customary date of
delivery by shipyard to the Government.
(3) The larger part of the German submarine fleet shall be
sunk. Not more than thirty submarines shall be preserved and divided equally between the
U. S. S. R., U. K., and U. S. A. for experimental and technical purposes.
(4) All stocks of armament, ammunition and supplies of the
German Navy appertaining to the vessels transferred pursuant to paragraphs (1) and (3)
hereof shall be handed over to the respective powers receiving such ships.
(5) The Three Governments agree to constitute a tripartite
naval commission comprising two representatives for each government, accompanied by the
requisite staff, to submit agreed recommendations to the Three Governments for the
allocation of specific German warships and to handle other detailed matters arising out of
the agreement between the Three Governments regarding the German fleet. The Commission
will hold its first meeting not later than 15th August, 1945, in Berlin, which shall be
its headquarters. Each Delegation on the Commission will have the right on the basis of
reciprocity to inspect German warships wherever they may be located.
(6) The Three Governments agreed that transfers, including
those of ships under construction and repair, shall be completed as soon as possible, but
not later than 15th February, 1946. The Commission will submit fortnightly reports,
including proposals for the progressive allocation of the vessels when agreed by the
B. The following principles for the distribution of the
German Merchant Marine were agreed:-
(1) The German Merchant Marine, surrendered to the Three
Powers and wherever located, shall be divided equally among the U. S. S. R., the U. K.,
and the U. S. A. The actual transfers of the ships to the respective countries shall take
place as soon as practicable after the end of the war against Japan. The United Kingdom
and the United States will provide out of their shares of the surrendered German merchant
ships appropriate amounts for other Allied States whose merchant marines have suffered
heavy losses in the common cause against Germany, except that the Soviet Union shall
provide out of its share for Poland.
(2) The allocation, manning, and operation of these ships
during the Japanese War period shall fall under the cognizance and authority of the
Combined Shipping Adjustment Board and the United Maritime Authority.
(3) While actual transfer of the ships shall be delayed
until after the end of the war with Japan, a Tripartite Shipping Commission shall
inventory and value all available ships and recommend a specific distribution in
accordance with paragraph (1).
(4) German inland and coastal ships determined to be
necessary to the maintenance of the basic German peace economy by the Allied Control
Council of Germany shall not be included in the shipping pool thus divided among the Three
(5) The Three Governments agree to constitute a tripartite
merchant marine commission comprising two representatives for each Government, accompanied
by the requisite staff, to submit agreed recommendations to the Three Governments for the
allocation of specific German merchant ships and to handle other detailed matters arising
out of the agreement between the Three Governments regarding the German merchant ships.
The Commission will hold its first meeting not later than September 1st, 1945, in Berlin,
which shall be its headquarters. Each delegation on the Commission will have the right on
the basis of reciprocity to inspect the German merchant ships wherever they may be
V. CITY 0F KOENIGSBERG AND THE ADJACENT
The Conference examined a proposal by the Soviet
Government to the effect that pending the final determination of territorial questions at
the peace settlement, the section of the western frontier of the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics which is adjacent to the Baltic Sea should pass from a point on the eastern
shore of the Bay of Danzig to the east, north of Braunsberg-Goldap, to the meeting point
of the frontiers of Lithuania, the Polish Republic and East Prussia.
The Conference has agreed in principle to the proposal of
the Soviet Government concerning the ultimate transfer to the Soviet Union of the City of
Koenigsberg and the area adjacent to it as described above subject to expert examination
of the actual frontier.
The President of the United States and the British Prime
Minister have declared that they will support the proposal of the Conference at the
forthcoming peace settlement.
VI. WAR CRIMINALS
The Three Governments have taken note of the
discussions which have been proceeding in recent weeks in London between British, United
States, Soviet and French representatives with a view to reaching agreement on the methods
of trial of those major war criminals whose crimes under the Moscow Declaration of
October, 1943 have no particular geographical localization. The Three Governments reaffirm
their intention to bring these criminals to swift and sure justice. They hope that the
negotiations in London will result in speedy agreement being reached for this purpose, and
they regard it as a matter of great importance that the trial of these major criminals
should begin at the earliest possible date. The first list of defendants will be published
before 1st September.
The Conference examined a proposal by the Soviet
Government on the extension of the authority of the Austrian Provisional Government to all
The three governments agreed that they were prepared to
examine this question after the entry of the British and American forces into the city of
It was agreed that reparations should not be exacted from
We have taken note with pleasure of the agreement reached
among representative Poles from Poland and abroad which has made possible the formation,
in accordance with the decisions reached at the Crimea Conference, of a Polish Provisional
Government of National Unity recognized by the Three Powers. The establishment by the
British and United States Governments of diplomatic relations with the Polish Provisional
Government of National Unity has resulted in the withdrawal of their recognition from the
former Polish Government in London, which no longer exists.
The British and United States Governments have taken
measures to protect the interest of the Polish Provisional Government of National Unity as
the recognized government of the Polish State in the property belonging to the Polish
State located in their territories and under their control, whatever the form of this
property may be. They have further taken measures to prevent alienation to third parties
of such property. All proper facilities will be given to the Polish Provisional Government
of National Unity for the exercise of the ordinary legal remedies for the recovery of any
property belonging to the Polish State which may have been wrongfully alienated.
The Three Powers are anxious to assist the Polish
Provisional Government of National Unity in facilitating the return to Poland as soon as
practicable of all Poles abroad who wish to go, including members of the Polish Armed
Forces and the Merchant Marine. They expect that those Poles who return home shall be
accorded personal and property rights on the same basis as all Polish citizens
The Three Powers note that the Polish Provisional
Government of National Unity, in accordance with the decisions of the Crimea Conference,
has agreed to the holding of free and unfettered elections as soon as possible on the
basis of universal suffrage and secret ballot in which all democratic and anti-Nazi
parties shall have the right to take part and to put forward candidates, and that
representatives of the Allied press shall enjoy full freedom to report to the world upon
developments in Poland before and during the elections.
B. WESTERN FRONTIER OF POLAND
In conformity with the agreement on Poland reached at the
Crimea Conference the three Heads of Government have sought the opinion of the Polish
Provisional Government of National Unity in regard to the accession of territory in the
north 'end west which Poland should receive. The President of the National Council of
Poland and members of the Polish Provisional Government of National Unity have been
received at the Conference and have fully presented their views. The three Heads of
Government reaffirm their opinion that the final delimitation of the western frontier of
Poland should await the peace settlement.
The three Heads of Government agree that, pending the
final determination of Poland's western frontier, the former German territories cast of a
line running from the Baltic Sea immediately west of Swinamunde, and thence along the Oder
River to the confluence of the western Neisse River and along the Western Neisse to the
Czechoslovak frontier, including that portion of East Prussia not placed under the
administration of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in accordance with the
understanding reached at this conference and including the area of the former free city of
Danzig, shall be under the administration of the Polish State and for such purposes should
not be considered as part of the Soviet zone of occupation in Germany.
IX. CONCLUSION ON PEACE TREATIES AND
ADMISSION TO THE UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION
The three Governments consider it desirable that the
present anomalous position of Italy, Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary and Rumania should be
terminated by the conclusion of Peace Treaties. They trust that the other interested
Allied Governments will share these views.
For their part the three Governments have included the
preparation of a Peace Treaty for Italy as the first among the immediate important tasks
to be undertaken by the new Council of Foreign Ministers. Italy was the first of the Axis
Powers to break with Germany, to whose defeat she has made a material contribution, and
has now joined with the Allies in the struggle against Japan. Italy has freed herself from
the Fascist regime and is making good progress towards reestablishment of a democratic
government and institutions. The conclusion of such a Peace Treaty with a recognized and
democratic Italian Government will make it possible for the three Governments to fulfill
their desire to support an application from Italy for membership of the United Nations.
The three Governments have also charged the Council of
Foreign Ministers with the task of preparing Peace Treaties for Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary
and Rumania. The conclusion of Peace Treaties with recognized democratic governments in
these States will also enable the three Governments to support applications from them for
membership of the United Nations. The three Governments agree to examine each separately
in the near future in the light of the conditions then prevailing, the establishment of
diplomatic relations with Finland, Rumania, Bulgaria, and Hungary to the extent possible
prior to the conclusion of peace treaties with those countries.
The three Governments have no doubt that in view of the
changed conditions resulting from the termination of the war in Europe, representatives of
the Allied press will enjoy full freedom to report to the world upon developments in
Rumania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Finland.
As regards the admission of other States into the United
Nations Organization, Article 4 of the Charter of the
United Nations declares that:
1. Membership in the United Nations is open to all other
peace-loving States who accept the obligations contained in the present Charter and, in
the judgment of the organization, are able and willing to carry out these obligations;
2. The admission of any such State to membership in the
United Nations will be effected by a decision of the General Assembly upon the
recommendation of the Security Council.
The three Governments, so far as they are concerned, will
support applications for membership from those States which have remained neutral during
the war and which fulfill the qualifications set out above.
The three Governments feel bound however to make it clear
that they for their part would not favour any application for membership put forward by
the present Spanish Government, which, having been founded with the support of the Axis
Powers, does not, in view of its origins, its nature, its record and its close association
with the aggressor States, possess the qualifications necessary to justify such
X. TERRITORIAL TRUSTEESHIP
The Conference examined a proposal by the Soviet
Government on the question of trusteeship territories as defined in the decision of the Crimea Conference and in the Charter of the
United Nations Organization.
After an exchange of views on this question it was decided
that the disposition of any former Italian colonial territories was one to be decided in
connection with the preparation of a peace treaty for Italy and that the question of
Italian colonial territory would be considered by the September Council of Ministers of
XI. REVISED ALLIED CONTROL COMMISSION
PROCEDURE IN RUMANIA, BULGARIA, AND HUNGARY
The three Governments took note that the Soviet
Representatives on the Allied Control Commissions in Rumania, Bulgaria, and Hungary, have
communicated to their United Kingdom and United States colleagues proposals for improving
the work of the Control Commissions, now that hostilities in Europe have ceased.
The three Governments agreed that the revision of the
procedures of the Allied Control Commissions in these countries would now be undertaken,
taking into account the interests and responsibilities of the three Governments which
together presented the terms of armistice to the respective countries, and accepting as a
basis, in respect of all three countries, the Soviet Government's proposals for Hungary as
annexed hereto. (Annex I)
XII. ORDERLY TRANSFER OF GERMAN
The Three Governments, having considered the question
in all its aspects, recognize that the transfer to Germany of German populations, or
elements thereof, remaining in Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary, will have to be
undertaken. They agree that any transfers that take place should be effected in an orderly
and humane manner.
Since the influx of a large number of Germans into Germany
would increase the burden already resting on the occupying authorities, they consider that
the Control Council in Germany should in the first instance examine the problem, with
special regard to the question of the equitable distribution of these Germans among the
several zones of occupation. They are accordingly instructing their respective
representatives on the Control Council to report to their Governments as soon as possible
the extent to which such persons have already entered Germany from Poland, Czechoslovakia
and Hungary, to submit an estimate of the time and rate at which further transfers could
be carried out having regard to the present situation in Germany.
The Czechoslovak Government, the Polish Provisional
Government and the Control Council in Hungary are at the same time being informed of the
above and are being requested meanwhile to suspend further expulsions pending an
examination by the Governments concerned of the report from their representatives on the
XIII. OIL EQUIPMENT IN RUMANIA
The Conference agreed to set up two bilateral
commissions of experts, one to be composed of United Kingdom and Soviet Members and one to
be composed of United States and Soviet Members, to investigate the facts and examine the
documents, as a basis for the settlement of questions arising from the removal of oil
equipment in Rumania. It was further agreed that these experts shall begin their work
within ten days, on the spot.
It was agreed that Allied troops should be withdrawn
immediately from Tehran, and that further stages of the withdrawal of troops from Iran
should be considered at the meeting of the Council of Foreign Ministers to be held in
London in September, 1945.
XV. THE INTERNATIONAL ZONE OF TANGIER
A proposal by the Soviet Government was examined and
the following decisions were reached:
Having examined the question of the Zone of Tangier, the
three Governments have agreed that this Zone, which includes the City of Tangier and the
area adjacent to it, in view of its special strategic importance, shall remain
The question of Tangier will be discussed in the near
future at a meeting in Paris of representatives of the Governments of the Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics, the United States of America, the United Kingdom and France.
XVI. THE BLACK SEA STRAITS
The Three Governments recognized that the Convention
concluded at Montreux should be revised as failing to meet present-day conditions.
It was agreed that as the next step the matter should be
the subject of direct conversations between each of the three Governments and the Turkish
XVII. INTERNATIONAL INLAND WATERWAYS
The Conference considered a proposal of the U. S.
Delegation on this subject and agreed to refer it for consideration to the forthcoming
meeting of the Council of Foreign Ministers in London.
XVIII. EUROPEAN INLAND TRANSPORT
The British and U. S. Delegations to the Conference
informed the Soviet Delegation of the desire of the British and U. S. Governments to
reconvene the European Inland Transport Conference and stated that they would welcome
assurance that the Soviet Government would participate in the work of the reconvened
conference. The Soviet Government agreed that it would participate in this conference.
XIX. DIRECTIVES TO MILITARY COMMANDERS ON
ALLIED CONTROL COUNCIL FOR GERMANY
The Three Governments agreed that each would send a
directive to its representative on the Control Council for Germany informing him of all
decisions of the Conference affecting matters within the scope of his duties.
XX. USE OF ALLIED PROPERTY FOR SATELLITE
REPARATIONS OR WAR TROPHIES
The proposal (Annex II) presented by the United States
Delegation was accepted in principle by the Conference, but the drafting of an agreement
on the matter was left to be worked out through diplomatic channels.
XXI. MILITARY TALKS
During the Conference there were meetings between the
Chiefs of Staff of the Three Governments on military matters of common interest.
TEXT OF A LETTER TRANSMITTED ON JULY 12 TO THE
REPRESENTATIVES OF THE U. S. AND U. K. GOVERNMENTS ON THE ALLIED CONTROL COMMISSION IN
In view of the changed situation in connection with the
termination of the war against Germany, the Soviet Government finds it necessary to
establish the following order of work for the Allied Control Commission m Hungary.
1. During the period up to the conclusion of peace with
Hungary the President (or Vice-President) of the ACC will regularly call conferences with
the British and American representatives for the purpose of discussing the most important
questions relating to the work of the ACC. The conferences will be called once in 10 days,
or more frequently in case of need.
Directives of the ACC on questions or principle will be
issued to the Hungarian authorities by the President of the Allied Control Commission
after agreement on these directives with the English and American representatives.
2. The British and American representatives in the ACC
will take part in general conferences of heads of divisions and delegates of the ACC,
convoked by the President of the ACC, which meetings will be regular in nature. The
British and American representatives will also participate personally or through their
representatives in appropriate instances in mixed commissions created by the President of
the ACC for questions connected with the execution by the ACC of its functions
3. Free movement by the American and British
representatives in the country will be permitted provided that the ACC is previously
informed of the time and route of the journeys.
4. All questions connected with permission for the
entrance and exit of members of the staff of the British and American representatives in
Hungary will be decided on the spot by the President of the ACC within a time limit of not
more than one week.
5. The bringing in and sending out by plane of mail,
cargoes and diplomatic couriers will be carried out by the British and American
representatives on the ACC under arrangements and within time limits established by the
ACC, or in special cases by previous coordination with the President of the ACC.
I consider it necessary to add to the above that in all
other points the existing Statutes regarding the ACC in Hungary, which was confirmed on
January 20, 1945, shall remain in force in the future.
USE OF ALLIED PROPERTY FOR SATELITE REPARATIONS OR
1. The burden of reparation and "war trophies"
should not fall on Allied nationals.
2. Capital Equipment-We object to the removal of such
Allied property as reparations, "war trophies", or under any other guise. Loss
would accrue to Allied nationals as a result of destruction of plants and the consequent
loss of markets and trading connections. Seizure of Allied property makes impossible the
fulfillment by the satellite of its obligation under the armistice to restore intact the
rights and interests of the Allied Nations and their nationals.
The United States looks to the other occupying powers for
the return of any equipment already removed and the cessation of removals. Where such
equipment will not or cannot be returned, the U. S. will demand of the satellite adequate,
effective and prompt compensation to American nationals, and that such compensation have
priority equal to that of the reparations payment.
These principles apply to all property wholly or
substantially owned by Allied nationals. In the event of removals of property in which the
American as well as the entire Allied interest is less than substantial, the U. S. expects
adequate, effective, and prompt compensation.
3. Current Production-While the U. S. does not oppose
reparation out of current production of Allied investments, the satellite must provide
immediate and adequate compensation to the Allied nationals including sufficient foreign
exchange or products so that they can recover reasonable foreign currency expenditures and
transfer a reasonable return on their investment. Such compensation must also have equal
priority with reparations.
We deem it essential that the satellites not conclude
treaties, agreements or arrangements which deny to Allied nationals access, on equal
terms, to their trade, raw materials and industry; and appropriately- modify any existing
arrangements which may have that effect.
(b)Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender,
July 26, 1945
(1) We-The President of the United States, the President
of the National Government of the Republic of China, and the Prime Minister of Great
Britain, representing the hundreds of millions of our countrymen, have conferred and agree
that Japan shall be given an opportunity to end this war.
(2) The prodigious land, sea and air forces of the United
States, the British Empire and of China, many times reinforced by their armies and air
fleets from the west, are poised to strike the final blows upon Japan. This military power
is sustained and inspired by the determination of all the Allied Nations to prosecute the
war against Japan until she ceases to resist.
(3) The result of the futile and senseless German
resistance to the might of the aroused free peoples of the world stands forth in awful
clarity as an example to the people of Japan. The might that now converges on Japan is
immeasurably greater than that which, when applied to the resisting Nazis, necessarily
laid waste to the lands, the industry and the method of life of the whole German people.
The full application of our military power, backed by our resolve, All mean the inevitable
and complete destruction of the Japanese armed forces and just as inevitably the utter
devastation of the Japanese homeland.
(4) The time has come for Japan to decide whether she will
continue to be controlled by those self-willed militaristic advisers whose unintelligent
calculations have brought the Empire of Japan to the threshold of annihilation, or whether
she will follow the path of reason.
(5) Following are our terms. We will not deviate from
them. There are no alternatives. We shall brook no delay.
(6) There must be eliminated for all time the authority
and influence of those who have deceived and misled the people of Japan into embarking on
world conquest, for we insist that a new order of peace, security and justice will be
impossible until irresponsible militarism is driven from the world.
(7) Until such a new order is established and until there
is convincing proof that Japan's war-making power is destroyed, points in Japanese
territory to be designated by the Allies shall be occupied to secure the achievement of
the basic objectives we are here setting forth.
(8) The terms of the Cairo Declaration shall be carried out and Japanese sovereignty shall
be limited to the islands of Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, Shikoku and such minor islands as
(9) The Japanese military forces, after
being completely disarmed, shall be permitted to return to their homes with the
opportunity to lead peaceful and productive lives.
(10) We do not intend that the Japanese shall be enslaved
as a race or destroyed as a nation, but stern justice shall be meted out to all war
criminals, including those who have visited cruelties upon our prisoners. The Japanese
Government shall remove all obstacles to the revival and strengthening of democratic
tendencies among the Japanese people. Freedom of speech, of religion, and of thought, as
well as respect for the fundamental human rights shall be established.
(11) Japan shall be permitted to maintain such industries
as will sustain her economy and permit the exaction of just reparations in kind, but not
those [industries] which would enable her to re-arm for war. To this end, access to, as
distinguished from control of, raw materials shall be permitted. Eventual Japanese
participation in world trade relations shall be permitted.
(12) The occupying forces of the Allies shall be withdrawn
from Japan as soon as these objectives have been accomplished and there has been
established in accordance with the freely expressed will of the Japanese people a
peacefully inclined and responsible government.
(13) We call upon the government of Japan to proclaim now
the unconditional surrender of all Japanese armed forces, and to provide proper and
adequate assurances of their good faith in such action. The alternative for Japan is
prompt and utter destruction.